反铲作业安全提示

免责声明:关于反铲操作的这篇文章并不打算取代机器随附的制造商手册。使用装载机/反铲的人员需要阅读并理解这些文件。

装载机/反铲(或挖掘机)是一种多功能机器,能够在农场或施工现场执行许多任务。It's ideal for most trenching work that is done on a construction site.

装载机非常适合将土壤和重物移动和装载到卡车上。它可以用于轻型拆卸,并且具有特殊的附件,可以提高其在该区域的能力。反铲通常也用于起重机类型的工作。

Accidents involving backhoes and loaders occur and are often tragic.While accidents may be similar to those that happen to tractors the additional of an attached backhoe and/or loader increases the likelihood of an accident due to increased height and length of the machine.

Common accidents with these machines are overturns,瀑布,或意外撞到旁观者,接触其他物体,如电线,人们在战壕中被压碎,坍塌了。由于这些机器的尺寸和附加功能,为了防止事故发生,需要加大努力。

Here are some excavator safety tips you should consider when putting the equipment to work.

挖掘机安全提示:操作前

Perform a Daily Walk-Around Inspection: One of the heavy equipment operator's most important responsibilities is themachine inspection.检查不仅能确保操作人员自身的安全,而且能确保工作现场其他人的安全。此外,a walkaround keeps machines in good working condition so you can meet production goals and deadlines.这不仅适用于拖拉机或联合收割机操作,但对于反铲作业,或任何机器。

第一,操作员必须阅读用户手册,并使用检查表作为检查的参考点。此外,review the signals used to communicate between the operator and other workers.The checklist should include engine,coolant,and hydraulic fluid levels;发动机舱;传输;螺栓的完整性,connectors,焊缝,and pins;brakes;hydraulic hoses;安全装置和防护装置;防翻滚保护;能见度,lighting,报警;还有轮胎。

检查这些项目时,注意任何可能的问题。如果反铲的任何部件或系统出现故障迹象,complete the necessary information for a"Do Not Use"tag and attach the tag to the backhoe.例如,工作前检查可能会发现稳定器臂和衬垫已损坏,需要修理才能开始工作。

  • 开始换班前检查机器,在换班结束时再次检查机器。
  • 为了舒适和安全,提供了安全带。
  • 上班前,确保后视镜清洁且设置正确。
  • 快速检查控制装置。确保操纵杆工作正常。
  • 检查驱动系统。最好在操作前这样做,这样可以防止工作中发生事故。
  • 打电话给该地区的公共设施服务部门,让其为地下线路或结构标记工作地点。

挖掘机安全提示:操作期间

  • 决不允许骑在水桶里的人,驾驶室,或者机器上的其他地方。Excavators only have one seat,which is meant for the operator.Period.
  • Never attempt to operate the excavator unless you are sitting in the seat and in full control.
  • 在崎岖地形或拥挤区域作业时,降低挖掘机的速度。
  • Carry the bucket low to the ground during transport.这将提高可见性和机器稳定性。
  • When moving the excavator around the job site,select a route that is as flat as possible.
  • 使机器尽可能笔直地转向,需要转弯时只需稍微改变方向。
  • 直接沿斜坡垂直上升,而不是沿对角线上升。
  • 上坡时,吊臂和吊臂应伸出,铲斗应放低并滚出。这将允许您放下铲斗,并在必要时防止设备滑动。
  • When propelling down a slope,the bucket bottom should be low and parallel to the ground.
  • 在非常陡峭或湿滑的条件下,you can use the boom and arm to help move up and down the slope.When going up a steep slope,extend the boom and arm,必要时,降下铲斗并收回臂,以帮助将机器向上拉。When traveling down a steep slope,position the bucket with the flat surface resting on the ground.收回手臂时,raise the boom and propel the machine until the front of the tracks reach ground level.

  • 使用挖掘机挖沟时,make sure the machine is level by placing dirt underneath the tracks.水平将使沟渠垂直,有助于避免塌方。
  • For better stability,使用机器后部的推进马达。
  • 弃土堆放尽量远离开挖,避免塌方。
  • 在斜坡上进行挖掘作业时,通过挖掘架子(或长凳)使机器水平。Material removed from the upper slope can be used to build up the lower slope and create a level surface.
  • On steep bench cuts,从上岸切割足够的距离,以便在下坡时有足够的回转间隙。
  • 切勿在挖掘机下方挖掘。
  • 当回填洞穴时,the excavator's tracks should be at a 90-degree angle to the excavation with the propel motors to the rear of the machine.
  • 当装载卡车时,never swing the excavator bucket or the truck cab.通过在卡车后部摆动,任何松散的材料都会掉在地上或床上,而不是在出租车上。
  • 切勿试图用撞击地面或其他物体的方式清洁挖掘机的铲斗。
  • 反铲运行时,切勿离开操作员座椅,always turn it off before leaving,even for a short period of time
  • Do not go under the machine if it's running,许多人因此死亡。
翻车拖拉机

安全第一

Tractor Center of Gravity

拖拉机重心-来源:https://extension.psu.edu/tractor-stability-and-unstability

挖掘机安全提示:操作后

  • 关闭装置时,确保它停在水平地面上,铲斗附件降到地面上。
  • 关闭自动怠速开关,让发动机在无负载的情况下以半油门运行几分钟,以帮助冷却涡轮增压器。
  • 在用钥匙开关关闭发动机之前,将转速设置为低怠速。
  • 离开设备时不要忘记锁闭驾驶室。

更多信息:

Backhoe and Loader Operational Safety:

http://nasdonline.org/1675/d001575/backhoe-and-loader-operational-safety.html

Bobcat Compact Excavator Safety:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?V= NJ-QIFDWPI0

卡特彼勒巡检:

https://www.cat.com/en_us/新加坡金沙赌场articles/support/parts-service/how-to-perform-a-daily-walk-around-inspection.html

Job Hazard Analyis (JHA/JSA)

网址:http://wisha-training.lni.wa.gov/training/jsa/jsa2009.ppt

https://www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib072205a.html网站

https://www.agprofessional.com/article/farm-machinery-safety-dont-just-talk-about-it

https://extension.psu.edu/tractor-stability-and-unstability(拖拉机稳定性和不稳定性)

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